Cayin N5 DSD Lossless Music Player

General Information

This is Cayin's second entry to the DAP market, available by August 2015. Taking advantage of the success of N6, Cayin has packaged high quality sound performance and lot of power into a compact and sleek design. With 2xTF card as storage and multiple output options such as 3.5mm headphone, 2.5mm balanced headphone, Line out and Coaxial out, the N5 has strive the balanced of portability, versatile and good sounding music player.

MCU Dual Core 600MHz Ingenic Xburst JZ4760
PLD SA2000
Volume PGA2311

Main Features
Headphone 200mW+200mW @32ohm (SE), 300mW+300mW @32 ohm (BAL)
USB-DAC Asynchronous USB up to 24bit/192kHz
Volume Control 0-99
Gain Selection High/Low (+6dB)
Channel Balance -10~+10; +/- 10dB
Equalization 10 bands, +/- 10dB
Power Saving Auto Power Off, Backlight time off, Breakpoint Resume

Interface and Storage
Display 2.4” TFT 400x360 IPS screen
Analog Output 1x 3.5 mm (headphone and Line, shared)
1x2.5mm (Balanced Heaphone)
Digital Output 1x 3.5 mm S/PDIF (coaxial)
Physical Control 1x Multipurpose Control Dial
3x General Navigation Button
Power On/Off
Volume +
Volume -
Language English, German, French, Japanese, Thai, Chinese (Traditional, Simplified)
Storage 2 x TF cards (up to 256G)

Audio Format
WAV Up to 24bit/192kHz
FLAC Up to 24bit/192kHz
ALAC Up to 24bit/192kHz
AIFF Up to 24bit/192kHz
APE Up to 24bit/192kHz
WMA Up to 24bit/96kHz
AAC Supported
OGG Supported
MPEG MP2; MP3 Supported

Phones Out (BAL)
Power rating 300mW+300mW ( @32Ω)
Freq. Response 20-20kHz ( ±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz );5-50kHz ( ±1dB,Fs=192kHz )
THD+N 0.006% ( 1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Dynamic Range 108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
SNR 108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )

Phones Out (Single End)
Power rating 200mW+200mW ( @32Ω )
Freq. Response 20-20kHz ( ±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz );5-50kHz ( ±1dB,Fs=192kHz )
THD+N 0.006% ( 1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Dynamic Range 108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
SNR 108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Output Imp. 0.26Ω

Line Out
Output Level 2V ( @10kΩ )
Freq. Response 20-20kHz ( ±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz );5-50kHz ( ±1dB,Fs=192kHz )
THD+N 0.005% ( 1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Dynamic Range 108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
SNR 108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )

Coaxial Out
Output Level 0.5Vp-p ( @75Ω; 1.0Vp-p ( unloaded )
Output Imp. 75Ω

Capacity 4200mAh 3.7V Lithium polymer
Duration ~9 hrs
Charging Time ~3 hrs (with 2A Charger, not provided)
Charging Current <=1500mA when charge with 2A Charger,
<=500mA when charge with computer USB port

Dimension 111*64*16.4(mm)
Net Weight ~195g
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Headphoneus Supremus
Pros: Design, features, settings, sound, appearence, build, value, file support,
Cons: Could be a smidgen more revealing around the mid-range, (though at its price you simply can't complain)
Cayin have always intrigued me, their approach to portable audio isn't about sound quality alone, far from. Their designs are some of the most unique and peculiar on the market. Not only have their designs separated themselves from competition, they detach themselves from MP3 players as we've come to understand them. Last year when we toured Cayin N6 the casing was described by my friends with some entertaining titles.
I will say Cayin N6 wasn't my preferred design for a flagship player, it was quite heavy, a little 'clicky clacky' on the push button controls and cumbersome on the go. All that changed when I laid eyes on their mid-tier model Cayin N5, only impressing me further once I held N5 in the palm of my hand. On top of the design Cayin managed to pack this little player to the brim with features. Everything from USB 3.0 port, dual micro sd card slots, coax out, line out, huge file support, respectable resolution screen. The pocket-sized player even supports 2.5mm balanced headphone out if you wish to use it. All for a respectable price of around $345 USD.
Phones Out (Bal):

  1. Power rating: 300mW+300mW(@32Ω)
  2. Frequency Response: 20-20kHz(±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz)
  3. 5-50kHz(±1dB,Fs=192kHz)
  4. THD+N: 0.006% (1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)
  5. Dynamic Range: 108dB(20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)
  6. SNR: 108dB(20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)


Phones Out (Single End):

  1. Power rating: 200mW+200mW(@32Ω)
  2. Frequency Response: 20-20kHz(±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz)
  3. 5-50kHz(±1dB,Fs=192kHz)
  4. THD+N: 0.006% (1kHz时,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)
  5. Dynamic Range: 108dB (20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)
  6. SNR: 108dB (20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)
  7. Output Impedance; 0.26Ω


Line Out:

  1. Output Level: 2.0V (@10kΩ)
  2. Frequency Response: 20-20kHz (±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz)
  3. 5-50kHz (±1dB,Fs=192kHz)
  4. THD+N: 0.005% (1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)
  5. Dynamic Range: 108dB(20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)
  6. SNR: 108dB(20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted)



  1. 4200mAh 3.7V Lithium polymer, can play 9 HRS
  2. Charging: 3 HRS (with 2A Charger, not provided)
  3. Charging Current: <=1500mA when charge with 2A Charger,<=500mA when charge with computer USB port
  4. Recommended Headphone impedance Range: 16-300Ω(recommended)
  5. Dimension: 11.1 x 6.4 x 1.64(cm)
  6. Net Weight: 195g


Music Format (Local Storage):

  1. DSF: Native hardware decode DSD64 and DSD128
  2. DFF: Native hardware decode DSD64 and DSD128
  3. SACD-ISO: Native hardware decode DSD64 and DSD128
  4. APE: Up to 192kHz/24Bit(Support Fast and Normal compression only)
  5. FLAC: Up to 192kHz/24Bit
  6. WAV: Up to 192kHz/24Bit
  7. AIFF: Up to 192kHz/24Bit
  8. ALAC: Support
  9. WMA: Support
  10. AAC: Support
  11. Mp3: Support


USB Audio(DAC):

  1. USB Mode: A synchronized USB Audio 2.0 Class
  2. DSD: Support DoP (DSD64)
  3. PCM: Up to 192kHz/24Bit
  4. Windows: Support (Driver required)
  5. MAC OSx: Support
  6. iOS: Not support
  7. Android: Not support



  1. Cayin N5 Music Player
  2. USB cable
  3. 3.5mm audio cable
  4. Silicone case
(add specs from penon audio here)
Price / Availability:
Penon Audio, Amazon and selected retailers.
On arrival the boxing is quite plan Jane from first look. I have a black relativity thick cardboard box with a nice texture, the words 'Cayin' can be seen in the upper left corner. On the back of the box however, is an assortment of information including the AKM AK4490 DAC used, PGA2311 volume chip, there are some other highlighted features such as the 2.5mm balanced headphone out, USB 3.0 and ability to support two micro sd cards. Total weight of the package comes in at 195grams.
Once removing the lid (which wasn't exactly effortless) the first thing you'll see is the player itself recessed into an insert. A piece of ribbon laying behind the player lets you pull upwards to release N5 from its holding facility. I'll say so far the presentation is quite attractive, sometimes these subtle formulas talk class in themselves. Once you lift the player out you'll find another cardboard insert below with your accessories and extra goodies.
Included is:
  1. x1 Silicon Case
  2. x1 User manual
  3. x1 USB 3.0 data/charge cable (flat)
  4. x1 Quick start card
  5. x1 3.5mm coax to female RCA cable
  6. Quality control pass sticker
When I look at the accessories there's something about them, something shows a higher quality than I usually experience. The silicon case appears high-grade material, the USB 3.0 cable thick flat and durable, even the user manual has been laminated in glossy finish. Its things like this add up to the quality Cayin shoot for even at mid-tier level. The manual is well laid out in English explaining most of the players functions. Cayin went the distance in presenting the package displaying they actually 'care' which is a welcomed aspect compared to some others in the portable audio market.
Design / Build:
At this section its 10/10 stars, if one thing appeals to me more besides N5's features its the design. Like mentioned in the introduction it appears Cayin have some of the most daring physical designers working for them. From the all metal casing, vents engraved along the side, the large respectable resolution screen, everything about the design makes N5 appear almost like an artifact you discovered deep inside an ancient pyramid. Its a real head turner, a conversation piece that may even leave people curious what the unit actually is when first showing them.
The back of the unit has a carbon fibre plate, the words Cayin in gold running writing on top. Its not far from the appealing look of an Astell & Kern player but much, much cheaper. Its not only the looks, when you hold the unit in your hand it has a little weight which adds to its quality. Kind of like holding an expensive watch or rare treasure and I love it.
Areas like the buttons are chrome finish, the scroll wheel embedded with finger grip notches firm to click, its just leaks quality everywhere and I can't express anymore how I admire the design of N5.
Let's have a quick walk around the player:
User Interface:
From an off state the player takes roughly 10 seconds booting to the main menu. The first you'll see is a musical backdrop and some round icons spreading across some strings. At the top of the screen there's an icon bar showing the volume level, gain mode, your main menu selection, EQ status and battery percentage. So nice to see more players integrating the battery level in percentage readouts, not only very accurate, looks great as well in the corner of your screen.
The main menu options are:
  1. Music category (genre, artist, album etc)
  2. Music library (folder browsing / select each card slot)
  3. Now playing screen
  4. Music settings
  5. System settings
Music Settings:
In this section you're able to adjust settings like gain mode, play mode, switching between line out or headphone out, gapless, EQ. Unlike several other players I've reviewed Cayin really deck out the music settings with several features, some you may use daily, others adjust once and be done with it. None the less its these adjustments that make a player very flexible to a number of users.
The available music settings are:
  1. Gain setting (Ldb / Hdb)
  2. Digital filter (several options)
  3. DSD gain compensate
  4. SPDIF out (DSD64) (D2P / DoP)
  5. Equalizer (custom presets / 10 band adjustable sliders)
  6. Play mode (normal / repeat, repeat 1, shuffle)
  7. Output selection (phone / line out)
  8. Breakpoint resume (off / on)
  9. Gapless (off / on)
  10. Max volume (set limit)
  11. Start up volume (memory / custom)
  12. Set up Start up volume (set limit)
  13. Balance (L/R – 10 steps each way)
  14. Album art (of / on)
  15. Lyric (off / on)
System settings:
In this section you'll find features like language selection, theme selection, folder operation, switching between USB and DAC mode. Once again Cayin not letting anything leak through the cracks people might need. Sometimes I find it amazing how all these single features can be implemented into a player then function seamlessly without any confrontation between each other.
System settings available are:
  1. Language (several options)
  2. Theme selection (different colours)
  3. USB mode (DAC / USB)
  4. Backlight time (30 seconds / 40 minutes)
  5. Screen brightness (6 settings low/high)
  6. Folder operation (off /on)
  7. Enable hibernation (off / on)
  8. Idle shutdown (off / on)
  9. Idle shutdown time (5minutes / 120 minutes)
  10. Scheduled power off (off / on)
  11. Format TF card
Now Playing screen:
At the heart of the unit is the now playing screen where you'll see your album art displayed with a great resolution screen for its class taking up most of the real estate. The track title, time duration, volume level, play mode, gain mode everything you need to enjoy the unit without glancing to far away. When you combine the design we spoke about coming from an ancient time then throw the modernization of a great colour screen with current album art you form something really special. Old meets new, design meets technology, all give the player a certain character.
Getting around the unit consists of using the scroll wheel and buttons along the side of the player. Basically, the scroll wheel can be used for moving up and down the menu options or you can simply use the buttons on the front of the unit also. The scroll wheel has a center button which makes your selections. I find moving around the unit requires two hands for most parts especially when navigating through the menus and your music folders but its actually quite enjoyable. The scroll wheel clicks firmly with each small rotation, the buttons have solid amount of resistance, it works quite well, a continuation of the design aspect.
There are other settings that change their mode when the screen is asleep, for example, long pressing the volume buttons will change tracks, single presses will change the volume in small increments so it doesn't get caught going up too loud in your pocket. Lots of little safety measures taken to expand the functionality and make the user experience a firm selling point.
Battery Life / Output Power:
N5 is spec'd out to reach a respectable 9 hours, using 16/44 FLAC I had no problems reaching those amounts, even more depending how heavily you use the unit, your file format and the amount of screen on time you use. I think anything under 8 hours is looking a little brim in today's age though N5 manages a neat little readout display in percentage and never feels like you're a slave to the power point. For myself I probably charge the unit once every 2-3 days.
The output power is rated at 200mW+200m @ 32ohms which is more than you'll need with any of the low impedance IEMs on the market. I'd say N5 will do well with most full-size headphones as well. During my time using IEMs I've never flicked the unit into high-gain and never ventured past 50 percent volume. Its a real little powerhouse made for the masses and should do well with just about anything (within reason) you throw at it.
Sound Quality:
In-ear monitors used:
  1. Tralucent 1Plus2
  2. Tralucent Ref.1
  3. Shozy Zero
  4. Aurisonics ASG-2
  5. Echobox Finder X1
Files used:
  1. 16/44 FLAC (all files)
N5's overall tonality is on the 'slightly' warm side of neutral, it can sound a little smooth around the mid-range and treble regions. While the treble is never absent I do hear a little lacking extension or a laid back presence. Areas like the low-end have solid punch with great extension, the bass always ready for action if your genre/albums are in request. One area that stands out on the lows is the texture and detail being quite nice, there's enough clarity to make your earphones sound full and warm if their signature is tuned that way. When you reach the mid-range the timbre has a certain house sound I've heard from Cayin's N6 player, its quite unique and classy giving the player its own personality.  Quite an addictive house sound you don't want to shift away from.
Areas like refinement, separation are good even being a little ahead of iBasso DX80. When it comes to resolution and mid-range detail there are sufficient amounts for the price range but its the only area I feel N5 may hold back over the iBasso, DX80 is just is a little more revealing. Its easy for me to say I would take Cayin N5 over FiiO X3II if offered the choice as the detail is surpassing that level and N5 isn't as warm as the FiiO units I've owned/heard which I don't particularly enjoy.
Soundstage is decent although not extremely wide, layering is sufficient on the left/right channels. While these areas are more then present the sections may be compromised being a mid-tier player. Overall you're not missing terribly much from the next level up in players but a little more stage width would have been welcomed for my Tralucent IEMs which push the limits of width for an in-ear monitor. While the Tralucent IEMs may not have reached their performance ceiling I had particularly good results pairing N5 with the dynamic driver based Shozy Zero earphones. The two provided an excellent amount of detail and dynamics which became my favorite earphone for N5.
Summing up, N5 is more than capable for the price and especially for an everyday all rounder who wants to lessen listening fatigue. The way the mid-range and treble presents themselves with that slight smoothness and relaxation allows many hours of listening without becoming tired. Players like iBasso DX90 are very revealing highly strung units but there is always the price of your ears needing a rest after an hour or two. I believe Cayin tuned N5 for the long haul, the all day listeners and this shows with their end result.
From the design, features, settings, Cayin completely nailed it. Not only have they produced one of the more unique looking players on the market at a respectable price point, they've hammered the functionality and usability down to a tea showing a functional practically bug free player can be accomplished if the market and companies put dedication to it. While other companies were moving into touch screens Cayin produced what I call a 'true audiophile' DAP. It looks good, sounds good and shows testament to the roots of  audiophile character.
When we talk about the sound N5 plucks many of the right strings, while it isn't the most detailed unit I've heard in this category N5 successfully accomplishes what it was designed too, that long listening experience. While I do prefer a slightly more revealing sound I am not taking any points off because technically N5 is quite strong, the timbre, house sound all equate to something quite special and will appeal to several portable audio hobbyist. For me, just having the unit in my house, on my desk when not in use is almost like gazing over at a sentimental piece, one I suspect with age won't appear any older.
I'd like to thank Cayin for sending the sample and its been a really fun, enjoyable experience reviewing Cayin N5. Its a pleasure to use on a daily basis, I can easily, easily recommend N5 to anyone out there looking for a great player among this populated portable audio market.
Sonic Defender
Sonic Defender
Sounds like a great player, but I still think touch screen is the way to go and I suspect Cayin will end up embracing this reality. I like that the N5 has enough power for most user needs. Thanks for the review.


Headphoneus Supremus
Pros: sound, power, output impedance, design, balanced output, two microsd slots, USB 3.0
Cons: controls require some time to get used to, noise in sensitive IEMs with balanced output
Cayin N6 is definitely one of my most favourite players. That's why I've waited for their new more affordable model with impatience. Finally, I've got N5 in my hands and spent enough time with it to make a judgment.

I won't spend lot of time, describing box, it's contents and players design/menu. There are excellent reviews, covering this in depth. So, just brief impressions, before I continue to the sound.

Box is nice, simple and stylish. Accessories set is also good, but I recommend you purchase "leather" case, it's good enough for it's price, and N5 deserves better case then stock silicon one.

Design is really superb. It's not that futuristic, like N6's, but it's still interesting. N5 has it's own face and reminds me those retro hi-end devices, this is a nice touch. Controls are a bit complicated at first time, but I've quickly got used, and now they are OK for me. Scroll wheel is responsible and reliable, screen has nice resolution and remains readable in direct sunlight.

Menu is nice, it has 4 nicely animated themes. Feature-wise, N5 has everything that we expect from modern player: media library, folder playback, lots of settings, USB DAC functionality, etc.

I must admit, N5 offers pretty nice features that are absent even in their top model N6: balanced amplifier with balanced output, USB 3.0 slot for faster file transfer and 2 memory cards support. Also N5 uses top DAC chip from AKM, AK4490 (N6 has 2 PCM chips).

N5's battery is big, so it offers almost 9 hours of work, which is really OK for such a powerful devise.

So, outlook-wise, N5 is a modern device, with all necessary features, unusual design, comfortable controls and sleek look.

And now, about the sound. First thing that I've noticed — N5's sound really changed after firmware update, to be more precise, v2 firmware made sound worse, and v3 made it better again, so recent firmware have the best sound. Second notice — my sound perception of N5 differs from vast major of reviews here. I don't have any explanations beside of subjective perception features. So, I've warned you :)

Generally, N5 have analytical sounding, with a hint of brightness. Player have really great and emotional mids and builds really good soundstage.

Bass of N5 is fast and detailed. It have a good resolution and texture. In some rare cases, N5's bass lacking some power, punches are present, but they aren't as crashing, as with other DAPs. Fortunately, this isn't an often issue.

Mids are N5's best side. They are emotional, live, have great detalisation and speed. This is definitely the strongest staple of N5's sound. This allows player to build good stage, both in depth and width. Instrument separation is good.

Treble is nice, airy and have perfect for me quantity. Compared with hi-end DAPs, N5 has some simplifications in treble, but it's hardly noticeable in everyday listening.

Some subjective comparisons.

Cayin N6 This is the main place, where my perception differs from other reviews. For me, N5 sounds colder, while N6 is warmer and more musical, N6's sound have more body and is more solid.

Fiio X5-2 Main competitor in this price segment have about the same "level", but offers slightly different representation. N5 is more neutral sound, while X5-2 give more bass and punch. Roughly, I'd prefer N5 for classics and vocal, and Fiio — for rock and electronic music. But anyway, I've enjoyed metal with N5.

Hidizs AP-100 Darker and more energetic sound. AP100 has more lows, but also have less details on mids, it's stage is narrower.

iHiFi 800 This DAPs have similar sound representation, but iHiFi have better treble, and N5 — mids and lows. Also N5 is way better in controls and design (but also much more expensive).

iBasso DX80 For me, DX80's sound is too emotionless, while N5 is great in emotions representation, so in 100% of cases I prefer N5.

Another plus of N5 is its universality. It have really low output impedance, so it's a perfect choice for multi-driver hybrids and armatures. On the other hand, N5 have pretty lot of power, up to 300 mW is really enough for vast majority of full-size headphones. Only issue is pretty noticeable noise level of balanced output, when paired with very sensitive IEMs.

Style-wise, I think N5 is better suited for complex genres like orchestral classics and vocal. Also, N5 is good in progressive rock and jazz. Little worse (but still pretty OK) is metal, but here you should better look for good remasters.

To conclude, N5 is a great player for those, who prefer neutral representation and enjoys great mids representation with lots of emotions.

I'd like to thank to Cayin for providing me with a free review sample in exchange for my honest opinion (but import customs made this sample far from free).

As usual, my humble video with impressions.



Headphoneus Supremus
Pros: Unique Design - Very Detailed Music Reproduction - Battery Life - Solid Build - Dual mSD Slots - Separate Coaxial Output Jack
Cons: GUI - Some Hardware finishing could be better - Balanced Output Hiss With Sensitive IEMs
Cayin N5 Review
The Cayin N5 was provided to me as part of the Cayin N5 world tour in exchange for my impressions and honest opinion on the device and it has since left my possession. I am in no way affiliated with Cayin and do not own the Cayin N5. I'd like to thank Cayin Audio and especially @Andykong for providing the opportunity to review the N5. This review is based entirely on my impressions and your impressions may be different from mine.
About Cayin Audio
From the second post in Head-Fi Cayin N5 Thread - LINK.
"This is a busy year in Cayin. The success of N6 has opened up a lot of opportunities to this 20 plus years prestige audio company. After the launch of C5DAC, Cayin R&D team has been busy in further integrating their amplifier expertise with latest DAP experience, and their effort will pay off when the new N5 is released. This is the second DAP from Cayin and is tentatively priced at US$349 (subject to local tax and logistic charges) and yet maintain the overall sound signature and capability of N6, so It is a compact and powerful, low cost and professional DAP that every headfier should looking forwards to.

Cayin started to go into headfi market few years back and started with several desktop based Headphone amplifiers. They decide to venture into portable market as their new development focus in 2013 and have launched two very successful products in 2014: the C5 portable headphone amplifier and the N6 Digital Audio Player (DAP). These two products were exceedingly well-received among HeadFi communities all over the world. Cayin has been working very hard since then and planned to offer 5 new products in 2015. The C5DAC back in Q1 was a capable twin to the prominent C5, and the forthcoming N5 will be a strong alternative to the renowned N6."

"Cayin is a premium HiFi brand from China, has been a major player in local (Mainland China) market since 1993. Their focus has been always dedicated HiFi equipment covering every chain in the music reproduction path, from CD player to speaker, but the essence is no doubt their tube amplifiers. Their equipment ranged from around US$100 to just below US$10,000 per item, covering the needs of different requirements and budget."
The beautiful Cayin N5.
Cayin N5 Specification

MCUDual Core 600MHz Ingenic Xburst JZ4760

Headphone200mW+200mW @ 32 ohm (SE); 300mW+300mW @ 32 ohm (BAL)
USB-DACAsynchronous USB up to 24bit/192kHz
Volume Control0-99
Gain SelectionHigh/Low (+6dB)
Channel Balance-10~+10; +/- 10dB
Equalization10 bands, +/- 10dB
Power SavingAuto Power Off, Backlight time off, Breakpoint Resume

Interface and Storage
Display2.4” TFT 400x360 IPS screen
Analog Output1x 2.5 mm (BAL headphone)
1x 3.5 mm (headphone/line)
Digital Output1x 3.5 mm S/PDIF (coaxial)
Physical Control1x Control Dial + 1xEnter/Play/Pause Button
3x General Navigation Button
Volume (+)
Volume (-)
LanguageEnglish, French, German, Thai, Japanese, Chinese (Traditional, Simplified)
Storage2x micro-SD card (up to 256GB)

Phones Out (Bal)
Power rating300mW+300mW @ 32 ohm
Freq. Response20-20kHz ( ±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz );5-50kHz ( ±1dB,Fs=192kHz )
THD+N0.006% ( 1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Dynamic Range108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
SNR108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )

Phones Out (SE)
Power rating200mW+200mW @ 32 ohm
Freq. Response20-20kHz ( ±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz );5-50kHz ( ±1dB,Fs=192kHz )
THD+N0.006% ( 1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Dynamic Range108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
SNR108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Output Imp.0.26Ω

Line Out
Output Level2V ( @10kΩ )
Freq. Response20-20kHz ( ±0.2dB,Fs=192kHz );5-50kHz ( ±1dB,Fs=192kHz )
THD+N0.005% ( 1kHz,Fs=44.1kHz;20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
Dynamic Range108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )
SNR108dB ( 20Hz-20kHz,A-Weighted )

Coaxial Out
Output Level0.5Vp-p ( @75Ω; 1.0Vp-p ( unloaded )
Output Imp.75Ω

Audio Format
WAVUp to 24bit/192kHz
FLACUp to 24bit/192kHz
ALACUp to 24bit/192kHz
AIFFUp to 24bit/192kHz
APEUp to 24bit/192kHz
WMAUp to 24bit/96kHz

Battery Capacity4200 mAH
Power LEDFlashing: Charging
Battery Life~ 9 hours
Charging Time~ 3 hours (with 2A Charger, not provided)
Charging Current<=1500mA when charge with 2A Charger,
<=500mA when charge with computer USB port

Dimension(L) 64mm
(H) 111mm
(W) 16.4mm

About Me (Frame of Reference)
I am an audio enthusiast in my mid forties and have enjoyed listening to music since my youth with vinyl, cassettes, and later CDs and digital files. I listen to wide variety of music from a perspective of losing myself to the experience. At times I like to be transported to different states of mind or emotion in the case of classical and OST recordings. Other times I go to the venue in the case of live recordings, binaural+, or studio sessions. Some times I just like to rock out. Every time, however, I want the clearest and most natural representation of the music that I can afford. If the track has thumping bass I want to hear it. If the track is complex with many instruments I want to hear each one. I listen critically often but also appreciate timbre and musicality. 
I've used Sony Walkman cassette players, mini disc players, Sansa Clip+, iPod classics, iPhones etc., over the years as my portable devices, and I have 'grown up' with headphones in my ears and players at my side. My first digital high resolution player was the FiiO X3 first generation. My current daily portable player is the AK240 and I enjoy it for its interface, musicality, refinement, and it's pairing with my JH Angie IEM.
Packaging and In The Box
OuterBox.jpg OuterBoxBack.jpg
Cayin provides simple but elegant packaging for the N5 with a good array of accessories.
The packaging for the N5 is what I like to see when I purchase a product. Simple, understated and elegant. I can't stand seeing splashy advertising on the box but I do appreciate key specs being listed on the packaging. Cain has done both and it's nice to see some general information on the bottom of the box for quick reference. Once the lid is lifted off the box the N5 greets you in a simple foam cutout with a cloth tab to aid in lifting the unit from its cradle, a nice touch. Underneath the foam cradle is another box that contains all the included accessories.
- QC passed card.
- Extra screen protectors (with one already applied).
- Quick reference guide.
- User manual.
- Warranty information.
- USB 3.0 cable for charging and data transfer.
- 3.5mm to RCA coaxial adaptor.
There was no case included with the tour unit but I'm under the impression that retail units will come with a silicone case. There are also options for a leather case from Cayin - LINK - and from 3rd party manufacturers as well, like the beautiful Dignis case - LINK.
Hardware Look and Feel
That wheel belongs to Batman!
As with the Cayin N6 I find the N5 to be very visually appealing, but for different reasons. While the N6 is a retro Sci-Fi styled DAP I feel the N5 is a superhero's DAP. I can easily see this as part of Batman's utility belt (Cristian Bale Batman, not Michael Keaton Batman). The combination of angled, hard lines, with the buttons and bevels has a great design aesthetic to me. When it was first announced I was drooling at the pictures and in person it mostly lives up to the images found on-line. The shiny edges mixed with the slightly off neutral grey body add a gorgeous natural accent to the body in contrast to a sea of rather bland chassis designs from other DAP manufacturers. I realize this is simply a music player, but I appreciate it when a company takes the time to add a design aesthetic to their products. The N5 design may not be for everyone but it certainly got the blood flowing to my visual cortex.
The back of the N5 is covered in carbon fibre but unlike the N6 this carbon fibre is not smooth and almost feels like a sticker. I prefer the smooth Carbon Fibre finish on the N6 and, to me, the N5 back seems cheap. I also noticed the tour unit was showing signs of wear on the Cayin logo on the back. IMO the finish on the back side could use a clear, smooth piece of glass or hard plastic or smooth lacquer to protect the painted logo and give the backside a more professional look. Of course this is my opinion and others may like the look and feel of the backside, but the lettering does need a cover over it.
Back_CF.jpg Back_CF_Lettering.jpg
The painted text needs some protection.
A bumpy carbon fibre finish that could look better in my opinion with a
smooth cover/lacquer over it.
Hardware Usability
I remember when I had the tour unit for the N6 I had a very hard time adapting to the hardware button layout. I'm happy to report that the button layout on the N5 is more user friendly and I found the overall interaction with the unit a pleasant one, with some caveats. On the top of the unit is the power button and like the N6 a long press powers the unit on/off while a short press toggles the screen on/off.
The most used hardware buttons are the small funky bat-wheel with a centre select button, and the three buttons along the left side of the N5's face - from the top down the buttons are Menu Back, Right (next), and Left (Previous). Along the left side of the unit you'll find the volume up/down buttons as well as a convenient Menu button that is context based depending on the screen that is currently displayed. When the screen is off the volume up/down buttons also act as Back/Forward with a long press and the Menu button acts as the Pause/Play button. There are no lock screen options but these buttons have you covered when the screen is off. 
Here's the caveats for me with the hardware control: 
1) The Pause/Play (Menu) button has about a two second delay when resuming a track with the screen off so although I pushed the button the music did not start to play immediately.  This had me pressing the button again, which of course paused the music again. Very frustrating.
2) The two face buttons for Right (next) and Left (previous) switch functionality when you enter a sub menu from the main menu. For example, when scrolling lists in the browser the Right button becomes an Up button and the Left button becomes a Down button. This messed with my head a little as I expected to continue pressing the Right (next) button to navigate to the next item instead of the previous item in the list. After a while I became used to the navigation and I imagine if this was your only DAP it would become second nature. I just wish I was more logical from menu to menu for me.
3) The scroll wheel would jump around on me when doing a slow rotation clockwise. Instead of continuously moving through the menus when the wheel is rotated it would sometimes jump back an item or two before continuing to move through in the correct manner. FiiO has had similar issues that they have fixed in firmware updates so hopefully Cayin can do the same.
4) The same reason I love the look of the DAP is also a source of frustration for me. The buttons are located all over the DAP and require me to do more finger dancing to control the device than is optimal. I had the same frustration with the N6 but it's not as bad on the N5.
Besides the caveats the hardware controls are all fairly easily accessible and once you get used to the button layout it is a breeze to operate the N5.
The battery life is rated at around 9 hours on a single charge and I found that to be around what I was getting in my time with the tour unit. I never really felt the battery life was short and was quite pleased with the length of time the unit kept a charge, especially compared to the Cayin flagship N6.
The three buttons on the left face of the N5, Return, Right (up) , and Left (down).
The inspired wheel with the centre select button.
The easy to access Volume Up (previous track), Volume Down (next track), and context sensitive Menu button.
There are no controls along the right side of the unit. 
Inputs and Outputs
A generous full array of jacks on the N5.
On the top of the unit next to the power button there are three jacks for outputting music to:
1) Coaxial digital out to connect to an external DAC
2) Share 3.5mm single ended headphone / Line Out jack.
3) 2.5mm Balanced Out for balanced headphones/IEMs.
The single ended (SE) headphone out is shared with the Line Out (LO). This seems like the best way for Cayin to cram so many options in to the limited chassis space and they have provided ample warnings IMO when using the Line Out option (selectable in the menus). You really don't want the LO volume level blasting in to your IEMs!! They could have shared the coaxial output with the LO in the same jack but this would require a special cable to line up with the unusual pin configuration like on the newer FiiO DAPs. I found the jacks to be solid with no 'wiggle' when headphones or interconnects were plugged in.
BottomFlap.jpg BottomDoorOpen.jpg
The unusually long rubber cover for the N5 inputs.
On the bottom you'll find two mSD card slots and the USB 3.0 interface for charging and data transfer. With 2 mSD slots it's currently possible to have just under 400gb of music stored on the N5 which is a very welcome consideration. I don't have any USB 3.0 ports so I just used a regular USB 2.0 cable that I had lying around to charge and load data to the cards that I had in the N5. While I appreciate the dust cover over the card slots and USB input the first thing I would do if I owned the N5 would be to cut the dust cover off. It's simply too long and did not want to stay in place when I had it closed. Not a deal breaker but certainly one of the things that I didn't like about the design. Once last nit pick about the rubber flap... Why not make it the same colour as the rest of the body?
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
The N5 uses a very similar user interface to the N6, and is also very similar to FiiO's wheel based DAPs and a few other Chinese DAPs on the market. The N5 is a non-touch screen device and the only way to navigate through the menus is to use the hardware controls. The menus are well thought out and there is a wealth of information on each screen, although at times the screen can get a little 'crowded' such as in the Now Playing screen. I didn't take a picture of any menus and there is already excellent coverage on the N5 menus and GUI from Head-Fi members @twister6 - LINK - and @nmatheis - LINK.
What I really appreciate from Cayin is the four different themes to choose from. Also, I believe that custom themes can be made by users for the N5 as noted by @Andykong in the N5 thread but I haven't seen a specific toolset released yet. From my experience with doing custom themes it shouldn't be too difficult to do on the N5.
While the screen itself is bright and vibrant I found that the off angle viewing is less than ideal. Please see the pictures below to illustrate what I see when looking at the screen at an angle other than straight on compare to the X5ii. I also found the white balance of the N5 screen to very cool (blue) rather than neutral like the X5ii. I do high-end VFX work for a living so while this is important to me others may not notice the cool white balance without a more neutral frame of reference, and it certainly looks more exaggerated in photos. The black and white images are to further illustrate the way the screen washes out and gets brighter when viewed at an angle. All camera settings are set to manual exposure with a fixed custom white balanced.
ScreenTop.jpg ScreenTop_BW.jpg
Screen_45.jpg Screen_45_BW.jpg
Screen_Glance.jpg Screen_Glance_BW.jpg
All in all though I would say the screen on the N5 is sharp, bright and certainly usable in most cases as the user rarely looks at their DAP from such angles.
Amplifier Section
The amplification implementation in the N5 is very clean and powerful. Just like the N6 I find that I'm listening at much lower total volume in the volume range as opposed to other DAPs. I don't hear much grain and the details are passed through the amplifier section relatively cleanly.
"One the most eye-catching new features in N5 is the 2.5mm Balanced Headphone output. This is one of the most frequently asked sound-related features when Cayin launched the N6 back in December 2014, and since you asked for it, Cayin goes for it.

Cayin N5 supports both 3.5mm single ended headphone output and 2.5mm Balanced output. The analogue amplification section of N5 is comprised of TWO Dual Op-Amp for Voltage amplification, and FOUR Op-Amp for Headphone amplification. So we have put a fully balanced amplifier inside the N5, and you can enjoy all the benefit of balanced amplification in N5, namely significantly higher power, better control, better separation, and lower interference. In fact, the full output from balanced headphone amp of N5 was so high that we need to tune it down so that it can work with most IEMs."
Although they say that they have turned down the amplification of their balanced output for sensitive IEMs I still hear quite a bit of hiss using balanced mode to my JH Angie IEM (17 Ohm impedance and 117 dB efficiency@1kHz). It's too bad because I really like the sound coming from the balanced output on the Cayin N5. Other users with less sensitive headphones/IEMs may find they don't hear hiss at all when using balanced output and if that's the case I'd recommend balanced over SE.
The Angie could sound great with the N5 balanced if not for the prominent hiss with the balanced output.
DAC section
The N5 uses the same DAC chip as the Astell & Kern AK380 in a single chip configuration, the AK4490EQ DAC. Cayin has done a good job implementing this DAC chip and I hear a very detailed and textured sound from the N5. Not quite top tier levels but for the price it's a good implementation.

"Although N5 is the entry model of Cayin’s DAP lineup, we still opt for the best possible components that fit the design purpose. For this reason AK4490EQ was selected as the DAC core for N5. The digital capability of this chipset is nothing short from impressive and can natively decode PCM (upto 24bits/192kHz) and DSD (DSD64 and DSD128) at a very high specification, and it will read SACD ISO directly and extracted into individual track internally. We want to make sure N5 can handle all sorts of digital music format and standard to the best possible level at this form factor.

The MCU of N5 is Dual Core 600MHz Ingenic Xburst JZ4760, a mid-class mobile phone processor. The processor offers hefty power for a small screen device like N5 and is the base of a smooth and swiftly operation. The processor supports DSP instructions, built-in SPDIF capability, and provides 24bit/192kHz digital audio output. In addition, the JZ4760 is a low-power processor that won’t disperse a lot of heat even when operate at full speed, this is important to N5 because low background noise and interference of all kinds are always appreciated.

Cayin also developed their own coding and employed a high performance PLD (Programmable Logic Device), SA2000, to clean up all digital signal prior entering the DAC circuit and control signal routing base on the source file sampling rate, including the native DSD signal to DAC directly. This design certainly increased the cost and complication significantly, but to ensure N5 will set off from a clean ground for its first step of digital audio processing, Cayin will not compromise for less than the best."
Cayin N5 Overall Sound
This is where the rubber meets the road. All these details of the DAP and I still haven't described what the N5 sounds like! To me the first word that came to mind is ATTACK! The N5 has a very sharp leading edge to my ears and the impact of notes is crisp and clean. What you get is good bass impact, detailed mids and well extended highs. The highs are, for me, the standout feature and while there really isn't anything wrong with the mids or the bass the treble simply is the star in my opinion. The sense of air and soundstage are quite enjoyable and although not as wide as something like the FiiO X7 (which is also much smoother up top) the Cayin N5 performs well in these areas. The bass is good although the lowest extension could be a bit better. The sub-bass just isn't as fleshed out as the rest of the frequency range as I would have liked. The mid and upper bass is good, if not very slightly elevated. The mids have very good separation but the presentation is forward without much depth, but if it's in the recording the N5 will show it. In the end I'd call the N5 a worthy DAP in its price range and though I feel it's a little bright it certainly is an enjoyable DAP. As a matter of fact when I acclimated to the N5's signature I found the FiiO X5ii to be slightly dull in comparison.
Please keep in mind that these impressions are from my perspective and depending on what headphones/IEMs you are using you may have a different view of the N5 than myself. Also please consider that perspective will change depending on what gear you are coming from. Like leaving a dark room and moving in to bright daylight it will take some time to adjust. Same for going the other way. So while I consider the N5 to be overall a little bright and sharp others may feel it's slightly warm and organic. It's all about perspective.
Cayin N5 Sound Comparisons to Other DAPs
In these comparisons I tried to volume match as close as possible to help level the playing field.
Cayin N5 vs iPod Classic - The N5 has much more detail retrieval than the now discontinued Classic. The micro detail in the recording is much easier to hear with the N5 and the iPod Classic sounds like it has a veil over the sound in comparison. The iPod driving power is no match for the N5 which means the N5 can drive a much wider array of headphones than the iPod Classic ever could. Not really a fair comparison.
Cayin N5 vs iPhone 5S - The iPhone 5S is a decent player but again lacks the detailed presentation and the driving power of the N5. Still, the iPhone sounds pretty good in its own right but the somewhat high (for sensitive IEMs) 2.3 Ohm output impedance, and the lack of driving power for difficult to drive headphones keeps the iPhone 5S in Cayin's review mirror.
Cayin N5 vs FiiO X5 (first generation) - I found the X5 to be warmer and a little flatter than the N5. The X5 is getting on in age and it's beginning to show in comparison to newer DAPs on the market. While the difference in detail retrieval isn't huge, and while the X5 is still a very capable DAP, I find that the N5 has better PRaT (Pace Rhythm and Timing) and presents a cleaner sound to the listener. The N5 is clearly more powerful than the X5 and I imagine the N5 would pair with a few more headphones better than the X5 can.
Cayin N5 vs FiiO X5ii (second generation) - I enjoy the X5ii a lot and it took me a while to get with the sound from the Cayin N5. Both players sound very similar when volume matched and both are very capable with detail retrieval, but with my headphones/IEMs I found the N5 to be slightly brighter and still sharper than the X5ii. Again, the differences were subtle, not night and day, but after extended listening I could pick them out. When I did acclimate to the N5 sound it seemed that the bass had more focused impact but in the end I would put it down to the N5's sharper treble that helps the bass sound more impactfull. Overall both players are great in their price bracket and a definite step up in my opinion from something like an iPod Classic. I did find that I preferred the X5ii control scheme as outlined earlier, but that is something that may simply be a matter of getting used to the N5 hardware interface.
Cayin N5 vs AK240 - For me I find the AK240 sounds warmer but at the same time more refined. It just presents the notes without as much aggression and yet is very enjoyable to listen to. I'm not surprised as the AK240 is in a completely different tier. However, the N5 is still a good performer and I would say that when volume matched the differences aren't a large as the price difference would suggest. As for the interface I vastly prefer the AK's touch screen to the hardware controls on the N5. Again, not really a fair comparison. I also couldn't really compare balanced output as my IEM hissed a lot from the N5 and was silent with the AK240.
Headphone Pairings
To be honest I don't believe that a certain headphones must be paired with a certain piece of gear or a certain genre. I believe in synergy with gear, sure, but if you don't like your headphone you should move on to a different set rather than wrestle with gear to compensate, or use an EQ.
I've recently added the ETHER C to the stable.
Vmoda M-100 - The N5 helps the bass heavy (though somewhat detailed bass) M-100 a little with the sense of space. Overall though the M-100 has so much bass that without an equalizer I prefer not to listen to it. The more energetic presentation of the N5 matched well with the M-100 and brought out a better treble response than I typically hear with this headphone. This helped quite a bit to balance the these headphones with regard to the frequency balance. An ok listen.
AKG K550 - These headphones can sound a bit hot in the treble but the lower bass has a good kick to them and can punch hard when the music calls for it. I  found the K550 a bit too 'hot' with the N5's sharp sound but when I listened for an extended period I found the soundstage of the K550 with the detail retrieval of the N5 became very enjoyable. The only caveat is there are slightly recessed mids with this headphone which the N5 doesn't help much with. Overall a good match and a fun listen, if not a little bright.
Audeze LCD-2.2 (non fazor) - The fact that these somewhat inefficient planar dynamic headphones can be driven from the N5 without using high gain and without raising the volume too much isn't surprising to me given how they performed with the N5's bigger brother, the N6. The N5 increased the sense of air and provides a good enough source for the LCD-2. It's not a match made in heaven though. The dynamics are somewhat crippled and it sounds a bit hollow to me compared to my desktop gear, or even a more powerful portable amp. This is expected though. Still you can use the N5 with the LCD-2 to drive it to good volumes when in a pinch. High gain was not much different except for needing to lower the volume to keep the listening level the same. The LCD-2 helped flesh out the bass presentation form the N5. A good listen.
Audeze LCD-XC - The LCD-XC is a different animal than the LCD-2. It's much more efficient and has much faster drivers with more detail retrieval. The N5 paired very well with the XC and the more aggressive presentation from the N5 added to the amazing detail retrieval of the XC. The combination is enjoyable to listen to and the clear mids and treble with N5 sounded very good. Of course we are talking about some serious headphones but the N5 wasn't ashamed to feed them all the detail they wanted. Great dynamics and a relatively open soundstage.
JH Audio Angie Universal IEM - The N5 to the Angie was a a very enjoyable pairing. There is so much detail retrieval on tap with every small nuance being thrown out for the Angie to reproduce, and yet it was only lacking a little weight to the presentation. I found that no frequency was fighting with each other to be heard. I did hear hiss from the N5 balanced output using the somewhat sensitive Angie (17 Ohm resistance and 117db sensitivity @ 1kHz), but SE was completely silent. I had to turn up the bass dial slightly on the Angie with the N5 but in the end it was a great pairing.
MrSpeaker ETHER C - Although the ETHER C is relatively new in my stable of headphones I found them quite good from the N5. Not being as efficient as the LCD-XC they benefitted from the power of the N5 with good bass impact and an amazing soundstage for a closed back headphone. Detail retrieval was above par and the pair matched well. Dan Clark recommends over 100 hours of burn-in for his V-Planar drivers so I was not able to have them fully burnt-in when I had the N5 in my possession. From what I'm hearing of the ETHER C now I imagine it would sound even better with the N5 with a little more weight in the low end.
Line Out From the Cayin N5
The Line Out on the N5 is very clean and it paired well with the ALO Rx. The Rx helped tame some of the sharpness and the detail retrieval from the DAC was top notch. I also tried the Line Out with the FiiO e12 portable amp and to the HA-1 desktop amp. In the e12/N5 stack the sound became a little more grainy and a little flatter compared to the built in headphone amplifier on the N5. The Line Out to the HA-1 was, again, very detailed and clean but the HA-1 was a clear step up in amplification, as expected.
Digital Coaxial out From the Cayin N5 
When connected through the coaxial output the N5 simply becomes a transport for your music.
I'm so happy that Cayin went with a separate, non-shared, coaxial out with the N5. With the latest FiiO DAPs it's become increasingly annoying to deal with the shared coaxial pin-out configuration to something like the Chord Mojo. What I hear from the digital coaxial output of the N5 is precisely what I would expect, that is to say I hear the sound of the device it's connected to. I hear no noise or issues with the coaxial interface and REALLY appreciate the separate coaxial jack on the N5. Thank you Cayin!
Final Thoughts
I enjoyed my time with the N5 for the most part. Just to summarize I'd like to get the negatives out of the way first. The interface isn't really my favourite of the DAPs I've tested or owned. The scroll wheel would sometimes jump around a bit when navigating (yet other tour members have had no issues). The button layout is not the most optimal or efficient layout. There is an unacceptable amount hiss with my IEMs using the 2.5mm balanced output. Are these factors a deal breaker? Well, that all depends on your perspective and where you're coming from. I'm happy with my stable of DAPs (for the moment) and I prefer their control layout more than the N5. If you are just entering in to the world of dedicated music players then the hardware controls would more than likely not bother you, especially given the beautiful design Cayin has come up with. If you don't care about balanced output or don't have sensitive headphones/IEMs that will be used in balanced mode then the hiss shouldn't be an issue for you.
One note I should mention is that Cayin has been very active on Head-Fi and they have been releasing FW updates at a respectable rate. They recently released firmware 3.0 which allows DSD over DoP through coaxial as well as a few other enhancements. I was on firmware 2.0 when I had the N5. There is very good support from Cayin and they are more than eager to help their user base with any questions or issues.
For me the sound quality of the N5 is very detailed if not slightly aggressive, yet after I get used to its sound signature going back to other gear they sound less dynamic than the N5. For such a small unit the power output is impressive and I think you'd be hard pressed to find a player at this price that can drive so many headphones with this authority. As a player at the top end of the mid tier the Cayin N5 is a very good entry in the world of portable audio. It's on about the same playing field as the FiiO X5ii in terms of sound quality and I know that if I didn't already own a few DAPs the Cayin N5 would be on my short list.
Thanks for reading, and Happy New Year!
My ratings for the Cayin N5:
Edit: Formatting
Very good review. I really like the N5 - great parts, design and feature set. It is a bit bright - I prefer Roxanne over Angie for the N5.  Good complement to the smoother, more analog sounding Cowon Plenue P1.  I made the mistake of putting the N5 under a pillow, listening (balanced, of course) while falling asleep. When I went to put it away, it was HOTTTTT!. The balanced amp section puts out a lot of power and heat - give this thing some space around it for cooling. 
I must agree, the Carbon Fibre on the back does not strike me as genuine. It looks more like a 3D print.

It's unfortunate you had accuracy issues with the scroll wheel. When I ran the N5 through its paces, the wheel was perfectly accurate. Just stiff.

The Cayin N5 sure if lovely, though. It's appearance was my favorite thing about it.
A remarkable review, such an joy to read your sharing during the New Year holiday.

N5's CNC aluminum chassis is designed to improve heat dispensation, you can consider it as a heat sink oif some form, so it does need some space in order to function efficiently.


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