I find the wireless category to be among the most exciting in headphones. Over the last several years, big advances have been made in this segment, and I expect much more to come. So if you were under the impression that there was no such thing as good wireless headphones--let alone outstanding ones--then connect yourself to your music only via the ether tether of the following headphones. You'll be amazed.
If you’re always on the move, and find yourself trying to do more with less, the Sennheiser HD1 Free would like to be your new BFF.
At first glance, the HD1 Free seems to be nothing more than an unassuming wireless in-ear monitor. But once you scratch its proverbial surface, you’ll find it to be a superb daily driver that is also: a commuting headphone; a dutiful work-out companion; a thunderously cinematic sound system; and a surprisingly good gaming headset - all in one remarkably compact device.
A Commuting Companion
Like all good portables, the HD1 Free has been specifically tuned to provide its listeners with a confident and undeniable bass response. And while that might offend some audiophile sensibilities, this is a very necessary thing.
Being mobile results in all manner of environmental external bass. Everything from trains to planes to automobiles, and even footsteps, can disrupt musical enjoyment with conflicting sources of bass. With the HD1 Free, we are treated to a deep and seismic bass response that is never anemic nor disappointing, allowing us to hear the bass that we actually want to hear.
Yet, unlike most portables, the HD1 Free also offers us a rich and lush mid-range response, where the fundamentals of music live. Detail and clarity are surprisingly well-maintained, which is something that cannot be said for the vast majority of wireless audio products in the world today.
I found the HD1 Free to be more than adequate with every genre I could throw at it, though it obviously fared better with Rock, Pop, EDM, and Hip-Hop due to it’s warm - but not dark - sound signature.
Work It Out
Let’s be clear for a moment, the HD1 Free is not an exercise headphone. It’s not ruggedized, nor is it waterproof, and it lacks the requisite neon-green fashion sense needed to be deemed a serious exercise headphone. Having said that, I found it to be brilliant for light cardio and bodyweight resistance workouts. It is so compact that it never once impeded a wide range of motion, and the cantilever design of its earpieces kept them firmly within my ears the entire time. Of course, your mileage may vary in terms of secure fit, but the HD1 Free’s included tips (featuring a center-spline to help maintain structural integrity) worked out very well for me.
Microwaved popcorn, Rogue One (A Star Wars Story), my dutiful iPhone, and a fine hotel room. Don’t knock it until you’ve tried it, it can be the stuff of dreams for a road warrior at the end of the day. Let me tell you, the level of immersion the HD1 provided was just what I needed to properly enjoy all of the rich sound design that Rogue One has to offer. I should also mention that the HD1 Free isolated me from ambient noise rather well, and let’s just leave it at that.
Join The Party
There are days, every so often, where I don’t feel like getting fully geared up for my battle station. Besides, Destiny 2 Faction Rallies just aren’t that serious. On those days, I found the HD1 Free to be a welcome respite from a fully head-banded and boom-mic’d experience. It paired quickly and easily with my Playstation 4, letting me enjoy both the game and party banter, without any fuss at all. I might not recommend the HD1 Free as your primary headset if you’re a competitive gamer, or even a tryhard for that matter, but for a casual and chilled out gaming session, it certainly fits the bill.
If there is any one area where the HD1 Free does not exceed expectations, phone calls would be it. While I had no problems hearing anybody, it was made clear to me that I was not using my typical headset, the Sennheiser Presence. To be fair, I consider the Presence to be the gold standard of mobile teleconferencing - and have yet to find another headset that can even match, much less exceed the Presence in terms of microphone input - so that wasn’t a surprise.
Sennheiser assures me that the HD1 Free can offer me a full six hours of continuous playback on a single charge. And while I can’t confirm that, I have no reason to doubt it at all. My own field testing saw the HD1 Free lasting through a full day of sporadic listening, taking a lengthy call or two, hopping on Discord for a guild meeting, and the aforementioned Destiny 2 session… all on a single charge. I don’t imagine it would have lasted much longer after that - but let’s be honest here, that was a pretty impressive run!
At the end of the day, I found myself very impressed with what the HD1 Free had to offer, day in and day out. Its sound quality is easily above par for a wireless in-ear. The build quality is outstanding, with all the fit and finish one would expect of a Sennheiser product - sporting a design aesthetic that is both refined and serious enough, where I don’t feel as if I’m wearing a childrens’ in-ear headphone. And its versatility is clearly off-the-charts. For that much utility, in that small of a singular package, the Sennheiser HD1 Free is - very simply put - a winner.
V-MODA Crossfade Wireless
Closed, around-the-ear wireless Bluetooth headphone
The V-MODA M-100 is a special headphone to this community, because the people here helped design and give voice to it. The M-100 genuinely was a crowd-sourced product development effort, and it has also been V-MODA's flagship for a few years now. On top of that, the M-100 has been V-MODA's best selling headphone since its launch.
Something people have been asking for from V-MODA for years is a Bluetooth wireless headphone. I'm one of those people--like others, I've been nagging V-MODA founder and CEO Val Kolton for a wireless headphone since before the M-100's launch. Well, it's finally here.
Given the success of the M-100, it should't come as any surprise that V-MODA chose the M-100 platform as the starting point for its wireless headphone. The M-100's sound signature has appealed to both general consumers and audio enthusiasts alike. The M-100's brand of bass emphasis starts< >low, and and then tails off in a manner that smartly leaves the mids relatively unruffled. As I've said about the M-100 elsewhere in the Guide: "The M-100's mids are detailed, if not just somewhat subdued with its framing between the prominent bass on the one side, and the soaring treble on the other. Imaging is surprisingly spacious for a closed headphone whose drivers don't appear to me to be at all canted at an angle, like we see on so many headphones today."
Now imagine that with time under their belt--and knowing they'd have to charge more for a wireless version of it--that V-MODA might actually try to refine the headphone's sound while they were in there, further strengthening the new headphone's place as V-MODA's flagship. That's just what they did, to my ears toning down the treble side of the more U-shaped M-100 curve. Probably due in part to that and other tuning, the Crossfade Wireless' mids sound more present than the M-100's. Will every M-100 fan like the changes? Not necessarily. For me, on balance, the change is positive. If you think the M-100's treble perfect, as is, for your tastes, then perhaps you'll find the Crossfade Wireless a bit subdued up top.
As for its capabilities as a wireless headphone, the Crossfade Wireless can simultaneously pair with two sources, so you could, for example, pair it with your laptop and your smartwatch. Also, as an avid smartwatch user, Val insisted that the Crossfade Wireless' antenna work well with them, as they typically have much shorter signal ranges.
The Crossfade Wireless' battery life while wireless is rated at 12 hours of music listening. A 30-minute quick charge will buy 3+ hours of wireless life, which is nice for road warriors who might run it down fully on occasion. And what if you do run it down? Val was adamant that the headphones perform strongly--and as identically as possible--whether in wireless mode, or in passive mode, and I think they've met that mark. So even if you run that battery down completely, you've got the wired option that requires no battery.
The wired option is also great if you want to need zero latency (like when watching a movie, gaming, etc.), or if you want to plug the headphone into a high-end DAC/amp.
The Crossfade Wireless comes packaged with a 1-button SpeakEasy Mic Cable, a micro USB cable, and a carrying case. Unfortunately, the Crossfade wireless does not fold like an M-100, so the Crossfade Wireless' carrying case is larger than the M-100's.
The V-MODA Crossfade Wireless is available in four colors, and can be customized with V-MODA's laser-etched 2-D shields, or their new 3-D-printed shields (which is what I went with).
It's been a long time coming, but, in my opinion, the V-MODA Crossfade Wireless was worth the wait.
Astell&Kern AK XB10
Ultra-portable Bluetooth DAC/amp (with microphone for headset compatibility)
Astell&Kern's new AK XB10 Bluetooth-enables headphones, much like Noble's BTS does. However, the AK XB10 is a more sophisticated (and commensurately more expensive) solution, and one I think a lot of Head-Fi'ers would absolutely love, with rather advanced, newer wireless technologies, not to mention a robust output--there's enough drive to power many lower-sensitivity and higher-impedance headphones.
Whereas I'd describe the Noble BTS as an elegant Bluetooth-enabling dongle, I'd call the Astell&Kern AK XB10 more of a wireless Bluetooth DAC/amp that is also an elegant Bluetooth-enabling dongle. The AK XB10 even includes balanced output via an Astell&Kern 2.5 mm jack, in addition to an unbalanced 3.5mm output. The AK XB10 supports SBC, aptX, and aptX HD codecs for Android devices and AAC for iOS. With aptX HD, the AK XB10 is capable of transmitting up to 24-bit/48kHz audio, and I've confirmed aptX HD operation with Astell&Kern's flagship AK380, and also the AK320, AK300, and AK70.
Whereas I typically limit use of the Noble BTS for more sensitive headphones and in-ear monitors, with the AK XB10 I feel perfectly comfortable Bluetooth-enabling virtually any systems, but I never imagined its use in a mobile wireless setup. I've been doing the same with the MrSpeaker ETHER Flow and ETHER C Flow, Sennheiser HD 800S, Focal Utopia, and many others. The AK XB10 makes using these headphones wirelessly not only possible, but perfectly reasonable, and with impressive results considering we're using the less-than-ideal ether tether of Bluetooth. Be sure, then, to manage your expectations--this is still wireless, it's still Bluetooth, so don't expect the same performance you're going to get plugging these headphones directly into your Astell&Kern players, or your fancy wired desktop rigs.
Of course, the use of the AK XB10 with my best and most sensitive in-ear monitors constitutes at least half of my use of the device. Using my FitEar MH334 custom, which is very very sensitive, there is some self-noise from the AK XB10, so it's not dead silent like the Astell&Kern players are. Still, though, in absolute terms, the self-noise is quite low, and for most headphones shouldn't be noticeable.
The AK XB10 also has a built-in microphone that has very strong performance in terms of outgoing voice quality. Everyone I've talked to using the AK XB10 as a Bluetooth headset has told me that the vocal quality and clarity is at least the equal of my Bluetooth headset benchmark, the Sennheiser Presence. However, whereas the Sennheiser Presence has tremendous noise-canceling ability, the AK XB10's microphone picks up just about every noise around you, so using it to talk to others is best done while you're in a quiet room.
Another use case for the AK XB10 is Bluetooth-enabling the audio systems of cars old enough to not have built-in Bluetooth capabilities. For example, I use the AK XB10 to Bluetooth-enable my 2010 Honda Fit's audio system via its auxiliary input. I found this to be a very nice option because the USB port in my Honda Fit has relatively low current output, so it doesn't charge my phone very quickly. The AK XB10 allows me to use a separate high current charger for my phone while streaming audio to the car via the AK XB10.
I've really been enjoying the Astell&Kern AK XB10, and my criticisms about it are limited to just a couple of things. First of all, I find the button layout to be less than ideal, far from intuitive. Even though I've been using it for a while, I still feel the need to look at it to know which buttons I'm pressing. Also, the battery life on the AK XB10 is rated at five hours, which is good, but certainly not great--perhaps that's the sacrifice for more robust drive and feature set.
If the AK XB10's functionality is what you been looking for, I haven't used a better such product yet, so it's very easy to enthusiastically recommend it, and well worth the price.
I know what you're thinking. "Apple AirPods in the Head-Fi Buying Guide? Is @joe out of his mind?" And the answer: Nope.
Apple's AirPods seem to get a lot of grief from many people across the internet. But for me? These were a surprise. I've never used the EarPods that came with my iPhone 6 Plus aside from using it as a remote trigger for the camera. I've only kept the ones from my iPhone 4S for testing situations when I could have possibly blown something up, so I don't have those for any type of comparison. But what I can tell you is I love the Bluetooth freedom out of these AirPods. I find them incredibly comfortable, and I can use them for around four to five hours before I even consider charging them. If I end a listening session at the office and head off to lunch, I simply pop them back into the case and they charge quickly. I'm good to go after 20-30 minutes to keep going and listen to my heart's content.
Now, I don't do critical listening with these, as I find other headphones better suited to do that job. But for background music or a podcast while working here at Head-Fi HQ? These things are great. The AirPods are definitely light on bass, so be assured -- bassheads do not apply, and I would expect them to return these right away. The soundstage is small to my ears, and everything's pretty front and center. I don't get the sense I'm in a live recording at all, but for the way I use the AirPods, I don't need to.
What I do appreciate is that I do get enough sound that I feel perfectly fine clocking a few miles on a neighborhood walk and still feel I fill my ears with enough volume to be entertained... at least with a full music track being played. With their fit teamed up with a lighter track or podcast, I do get a considerable amount of outside noise. But on a walk around the neighborhood, I welcome it, as I do want to be aware of my surroundings.
Comfort-wise, I barely notice them in my ears, if at all. That's a high point for me, because I am not a fan of feeling the clamp of a headphone, and I love not being tied to a cord that can get caught on a chair or swinging arms. I can still get all my audio notifications from my Mac or iPhone (depending on where I'm connected), and still move quickly to talk about any given topic with @jude or Brian (@AxelCloris) at a moment's notice. Speaking of my office companions, neither one could get a satisfying fit with the AirPods, so if the design of the wired EarPod isn't to your liking, I don't think that these will comfortably fit the bill for you. As the only person at Head-Fi HQ who likes the fit, the AirPods are left solely in my possession. Do I mind? Not one bit. I love the small charging case, and they go into any laptop bag or backpack I carry, no matter where I go. My love affair with the Apple AirPods started just before CanJam SoCal, and they've been a hit with me ever since.
So, do I recommend them? I think they are worth a consideration, especially if you're looking for a simple, bare-bones setup for sound on the go.
Sennheiser RS 185
Open, around-the-ear, full-size wireless headphone system
When it comes to wireless headphones at home, Sennheiser, a few years back, introduced the Sennheiser RS 220, which was, by a wide margin at the time, the best sounding wireless headphone of any type that I'd ever heard. Its sound reminds me of the venerable Sennheiser HD6XX family, only with the freedom of wireless. Unfortunately, some RS 220 customers were experiencing signal drop-outs. Of course, RF traffic is going to vary from place to place, and I've not suffered such problems with my RS 220 either at home or at work (and still use it at home a lot), but Sennheiser still saw fit to substantially improve the RF performance of its latest generation of home wireless headphones, introduced at this year's CES.
Sennheiser introduced four new Sennheiser home wireless headphone models: RS 165, RS 175, RS 185, and RS 195. All of the new models incorporate a new Sennheiser proprietary wireless link technology that has low latency and improved range (with a claimed maximum range of 100 meters, or 328 feet). Sennheiser Product Manager Oliver Berg assured me that these latest wireless headphones should have much improved resistance to signal drop-outs, even in high RF traffic areas.
The new home wireless model most Head-Fi'ers would be most interested in is the Sennheiser RS 185 ($349.95). While not necessarily intended as a direct replacement for the now-discontinued RS 220, in my estimation that's essentially what it is. And, like the RS 220, the RS 185 is an open, circumaural design, and, like the RS220 was, the RS185 was designed specifically for enthusiasts of premium audio.
Like its forebear, the Sennheiser RS185 system is capable of detail retrieval that approaches very good wired headphones. Of course, it can't match up to the best wired headphone systems I've heard (and neither could the RS220), but there's no doubt I prefer it to many of my good wired headphones.
The RS185, in terms of background noise, is essentially dead quiet, which sets up a nice dark backdrop from which to show off its impressive ability to resolve fine, gossamer details. Though it has an analog input from which one can choose automatic level control or manual level control, I use (as I do with the RS220) the optical digital input, feeding it from the optical output of a Fostex HP-A4 or Fostex HP-A8C. (From its optical input, the level is fixed, with volume only controlled by the headphone controls.)
In terms of wireless range, the RS 185 does outdo the RS220, with both being easily able to cover my home's modest square footage, but the RS185 ultimately giving me more range in a simple keep-walking-until-the-signal-drops test. As I still do with the RS220, I marvel at my ability to enjoy wired-type fidelity with the RS185--fifty feet from my rig.
In terms of overall performance, the RS185 comes awful close to the esteemed RS 220, to my ears, and that's saying a lot, given the RS220's outlandish performance for a wireless headphone, and the fact that it was sold for $200 more than RS 185's asking price ($599.95 versus $399.95). In doing direct comparisons between the RS220 and the RS185, the RS 185 could be described as having a more exciting sound, a touch more thump down low, and a little more shimmer, a little more presence in the lower treble--and there are times I prefer it. Overall, though, for my tastes, the smoother, more even hand of the RS 220 probably has the edge. For me, the wily veteran also just edges out the RS 185 in terms of imaging, in terms both a sense of space, and a sense of precision.
Still, I haven't heard a wireless headphone of any type that's not named "RS 220" that competes with the RS185. Given that the RS220 has been put out to pasture, there's no current wireless headphone in production that I've heard that can compete with the RS 185. In my experience, in the premium wireless home headphone space, it's Sennheiser versus Sennheiser.
When it comes to wireless audio today, nobody is pushing the boundaries like Sennheiser.
One of the common questions I'm asked is "My kid asked for Beats headphones. Is there something I can get for the same price that sounds better?" Now of course the simple answer to that is "yes." But if the kid wants Beats headphones, the kid probably wants Beats headphones. Now if your kid has his heart set on Beats headphones then my first recommendation would be the new Beats Solo3 Wireless. As far as wireless supra-aural (on-the-ear) headphones go, it's an easy recommendation, especially for someone who has an affinity for the Beats brand, or even those who don't--it's a good wireless on-ear, period. And if your intended Beats recipient is an Apple ecosystem user (he has an iPhone, a Mac, maybe an iPad, too), then the recommendation is even stronger (which I'll explain in a minute).
First of all, to my ears, the Beats Solo3 Wireless sounds so-so, bordering on good. I can't imagine many diehard Head-Fi'ers being impressed by its fidelity, but its rich, bass-emphasized (but not muddy) tonal balance is the stuff of easy mainstream consumer appeal. Its resolution doesn't do much to delve deeply into all on offer on great recordings, but it's an easy, comfortable listen, in terms of its sound.
Unfortunately, I can't say the same for its wearing comfort. Being a rather tight-clamping on-the-ear headphone means not being a comfortable long-term wearer, at least on my head. Both of my ears start to feel the crush upon them well before my listening time hits an hour. I'm not sure if this will loosen with time and a lot of use, but I don't imagine I'll be giving this headphone enough time or use to find that out (more due to its lack of comfort than because of the sound).
That all said, this headphone is very impressive as a wireless headphone. If it's comfortable on your head, on your ears, and you like the sound--and if you don't need an active noise-canceler--then I can't think of too many wireless headphones that will suit your purposes better the Beats Solo3 Wireless. Battery life is rated at up to 40 hours per charge. 40 hours. That's remarkable, and may have something to do with the efficiency of the new W1 wireless chip from Apple. What's also amazing is its wireless range. Again, this is probably also owing to the W1 wireless chip, with the Beats Solo3 Wireless able to maintain its connection to my phone cleanly no matter how far in my house I stray from it. In fact, walking out of my house and down the street, I can get a few doors down and still maintain a connection! Its range is simply incredible! If wireless is about freedom, I can't think of another Bluetooth headphone that is as freeing as the Beats Solo3 Wireless.
If you're an Apple ecosystem user (I very much am), the Beats Solo3 Wireless' use of the new Apple W1 wireless chip is a nice value-add. W1 allows for quick connection to one's iPhone--just hold the Beats Solo3 Wireless near your iPhone, and a connection dialog pops up; confirm it with a click, and you're paired. Very cool. If you're an iCloud / Mac user, it gets even better. The Beats Solo3 Wireless, once paired to your iPhone, sends that connection profile to iCloud, making the Solo3 available as an audio device to all of your other Apple devices connected to that iCloud account. Today, I was listening to music on my iPhone, but then wanted to watch a YouTube video on my MacBook. Going to my list of audio devices on my MacBook, I saw the Beats Solo3 Wireless an available device, selected it, and I was good to go on the Mac--all without ever having gone through a pairing dialog with the Mac. This makes device switching (between my Apple devices) very quick, very easy.
If you or your kid really wants a Beats over-ear headphone, the Solo3 Wireless would be my current pick. However, with an MSRP of $299.95, it is on the pricier side for the category, but at least offers very trick wireless capability for the price.
NOTE: I've recently seen the Solo3 Wireless for between $50 to $80 off MSRP at Amazon.com, so shop around. Given how new this model is, I'm guessing those are sale prices.
When Parrot released its first version of the Zik, it was a remarkable achievement--their very first headphone was, at the time, one of the most technology-packed headphones on the market. It was the first headphone I can remember using with gesture-based capacitive touch panel controls. It had an impressive companion mobile phone app that allowed a lot of latitude in terms of DSP effects and equalization--settings that stayed in the headphone (which I wish was true for all such headphone/app combos), it was stylish as heck (designed by renowned French designer Philippe Starck), and it sounded surprisingly good while doing a commendable job actively canceling noise. Again, it was a fantastic, sophisticated effort from a company that hadn't previously made a headphone.
With this latest version of the Zik (Parrot Zik 3), Parrot made some tweaks to the styling, refinements in the newer version of the app, and, of course, further refinements to the sound. Parrot has also added wireless charging via an included Qi wireless charger. (The early production sample Zik 3 Parrot sent us did not include the wireless charger, so we haven't used it.) All of the things I enjoyed about the first Zik remain and have been improved. Unfortunately, a couple of things I didn't like also persist, which I'll get to in a minute.
When it comes to styling, the Zik 3 is still very much a Zik, very much a Starck design, with its distinctive flowing, liquid-like metal yolks. Since the first generation Zik, additional color options and ear cup styling options have since been offered, including embossed reptile and quilted motifs.
The latest version of the Zik companion app offers many more features and sound customization options, including pre-configured sound profiles designed by notable people in music and production. The app also provides the ability to play with the Zika 3's many DSP configurations, and it even allows you to adjust the level of active noise canceling. I actually enjoy using some of the Zik 3's DSP venue simulations, with the reverb occasionally fun to use with some music for a simulated live feel.
In terms of sound quality, the Zik has only improved, with greater overall resolution, making it one of the best sounding Bluetooth headphones I've heard. In its default equalization mode, its tonal balance is quite even-handed, and likely to find favor with many Head-Fi'ers. For example, if you've found the Sennheiser MOMENTUM Wireless just a bit too bass heavy for you, consider at the Zik 3. Also, the Zik 3's active noise canceling has improved since the first-generation Zik--though not as effective as Sony's latest or Bose's, it's still impressive. Also, while the passive mode on the first-generation Zik was so bad I generally chose silence over it when the battery died, it has improved (and is now listenable) with the Zik 3.
The Zik 3 can also be used as a digital USB streaming headphone, with built-in USB DAC functionality. (My Mac shows the Zik 3 as 24-bit/48kHz-capable USB DAC.) What's nice is that in USB streaming mode, the Zik 3's capacitive touch panel can be used to control my Mac's volume level, and to play/pause the music.
A couple of unfortunate holdovers from the first-generation Zik include a headband that is among the least comfortable in this class--after an hour or two, a rather uncomfortable pressure point forms at the top of my head. On the positive side, the headband can extend to fit larger heads (which was a sorely needed change)--on the downside of that is the squarish shape of the headband when fully extended. Also, while battery life has improved, it's still only six hours in fully wireless mode (with DSP effects enabled). However, in its Airplane Mode--using the audio cable instead of wireless with ANC enabled, but all spatialization features off--the Zik 3 is rated to provide up to 18 hours of use.
The Parrot Zik 3 is a compelling, tech-heavy, stylish wireless headphone, and assures Parrot as still a maker of one of the best sounding Bluetooth headphones currently available. Like the Sennheiser PXC550, though, this is also a complex headphone to fully explore, so I only recommend it for those who are more gadget-freak types.
Greatings! Sennheiser RS 185 is present in every reputed review that I've read, as Forbes and others. But when it comes to compare with other headphones in the market, websites as Versus.com (yes, I know, I can be plasphemous... I guess) rates it down when it comes without some features that its competitors have... such as Astro A50 Gen4, or Plantronics BackBeat Pro 2 SE. Forgive me if I am making some wrong assumption, but I'm having dificulty searching a Hi-quality wireless headphone - specially with Dolby compatibility (or at least surround 7.1). Dolby launched this year the bluetooth compatible "Dolby Dimension", but some of its reviews are derogaty... specially because it is too much expensive!
Very nice article,Thank you very much!!
But seems to me that it is slightly out of date, and that marketing is doing it's thing. There is a huge market of wireless headphones and some new models are up.
Now, i'm not really an audiophile. but i know what sound i would like to hear. for example i like a sound i got from my old s8+ with AKGish samsung headphones and also Senheiser CX200. many would say it's **it. The time of CX200 is passed long time ago. Now i'm looking for a new pair of wireless one. Budget also got higher, so i can buy one up to 250us or more but i would really want to buy something in the range of Bose SoundSport Wireless. But the price is varying and there are other models as well. I would much appreciate if someone can recommend a model for me (or can be even true wireless).