Yes, you may, although polyester isn't the most highly thought of film material (polypropylene is, or teflon). 0.22 uf will give you a lower corner frequency for the high-pass filter formed by the input capacitor and R1, I believe (100K), so the bass response will be a little better. If your device (CD player, whatever) does not have issues with DC offset, you can bypass the iput capacitor altogether and just go straight in.
Originally Posted by Sinbios No, the bass goes lower.
While this IS true, it's not the whole story. The frequency that is calculated (f=1/(2*pi*R*C)) is the 3dB point, ie the half power frequency. This means the attenuation actually carries further up in frequency asymptotically toward 0dB, as the filter is not a brickwall. Therefore, a larger capacitor moves the bass attenuation further down in frequency, and therefore could improve the perceived sound. However, the -3dB is usually so far down (try the numbers, the R is the resistance to ground after the capacitor), that you'd be hard pressed to hear a difference