Newer sound cards (including onboard HD audio codecs) usually have hardware support for 44.1 kHz sample rate, at least if you do not use DSP effects. Some may have slightly worse performance than at 48/96/192 kHz, though, for example, the ASUS Xonars have higher noise floor by 6-7 dB, perhaps because of the re-clocking by the CMI8788 chip. Notable examples of older hardware that was limited to 48 kHz include AC97 onboard audio, and various Sound Blaster Live and Audigy cards.
In the likely case that you are using Windows, note also that the Windows audio stack may still convert the sample rate in software anyway, sometimes even more than once. It is not uncommon to see this problem in recorded samples and RMAA test results posted by people (see the "24bit vs 16bit, the myth exploded!" thread for a possible recent example).
For more information on sample rate conversion, see also this older Sound Science thread.