I am new here, so please take my suggestions with a grain of salt and definitely research further before buying anything. Even if these products are not exactly what you're looking for, maybe they'll give you some ideas for further investigation.
First off, I don't think you will need a receiver. Here are my ideas:
I think the simplest option would be if you found a phono preamp that included a headphone jack. I have not researched this area, but a quick search on Amazon turned up this:
It seems to have a 1/4" output, but doesn't refer to headphone out anywhere, so I would look into that further. Something along these lines would appear to be the simplest solution, but would not do anything to drive your headphones.
Better Headphone Performance
If you want to get more performance out of your headphones, I would run this: turntable > preamp > speakers. Then you could also run a headphone amp and your headphones out of the same preamp.
I have seen this preamp suggested in other posts (but you could also use the one you mentioned in the OP).
This would be on the higher end of (what I consider) "cheap" for an amp:
You could also look at Fiio for cheap headphone amp options, JDS Labs Objective2, and many others.
Disclaimer: I am not sure if this would work and it will definitely not be ideal, but if you just want to try out the turntable, you could possibly go directly from the turntable. You could try an RCA to 3.5 mm cable female adapter to plug the headphones into and use regular RCA cables to go to your speakers and just unplug the speakers when you want to use your headphones and vice versa. I'm not sure if this would work, but I'm sure you could search online for others who have tried it, or just risk the $1.71 at monoprice and give it a shot. This is probably not the ideal option SQ wise though.
This product doesn't really address your question, but is inexpensive and might just be interesting to check out:
Hopefully I've done more help than harm! Sorry in advance if none of this is useful!