Based mainly off my friends' impressions (a few of them own the TF10):
Is the cable really as bad as I hear they are?
Yes. Kind of noisy (e.g. you can hear it when it brushes against your shirt) and will likely die on you in a year.
How durable are the comply buds?
Depends. Most of my friends used theirs for 1-3 months max before it started looking gross.
A non-issue though; just buy extras.
Also, do these stick out a lot when in your ears?
Yes. Unless you have elephant ears, I'll probably be able to see the IEMs when I'm standing directly behind you.
You will never be able to sleep on your side with these. I doubt you can wear a helmet with them too.
Didn't answer the comparison question (vs Bose) because I have never heard the Bose IEM, and neither have my friends. Everyone I know agrees that the TF10 sound good, isolate well, and isn't the best design or build quality.
Be careful how you handle the IEM itself. The shell is prone to break apart within a year--that's what most of my friends experienced.