StringBoi, you have a lot of pretty common questions for jumping into this. In short, most devices in my experience work either with Android or with Apple. There are ways around this (you can get a DAC/amp combo that can be run as amplifier only and use an LOD until you get your S4, for example), but it appears to be generally true. There are a handful of devices that can work with both (the V-Moda Verza and the Go-Dap X [I believe] it was based upon come to mind), but they're pretty rare at this point.
What might be a good idea is to make sure you have May 4th off and attend the Canlanta get-together (link). There will be a lot of great gear there and plenty of opportunity to actually see and hear how these things work, instead of trying to decipher it all from articles and forum posts. Doing your research is almost always a good thing, but getting a chance to actually interact with the gear and the people who know the most about it would be just invaluable.
If you aren't able to or interested in attending, I actually think this is the most useful thread I've come across on learning how to utilize Android devices to get excellent sound while on the go. While it might seem a bit daunting at first, I'd recommend starting at the beginning and working your way through. I've done that with this and numerous other threads, and I've yet to regret it. (I'm casually working my way through the 500+ page IE8 thread now... that one will take a while). You'll learn a great deal along the way, I guarantee it.
Anyway, hope this was at least somewhat helpful. If you just want a brief off-the-cuff recommendation that meets your $200 budget, I'd say an inexpensive LOD (like this Fiio L9) and entry-level DAC/amp (like this iBasso D-Zero) would be a solid start. Although without knowing what headphones you're using, it would be tough to know for sure ;).
Let us know how you get on, bud!!
I'm using a pair of Logitech UE 500's atm, nothing high end or hard to drive. But I did notice since getting them a few weeks ago that I have to turn the volume up to almost max on my iPhone to hear some songs, especially while walking here in the city with the cars passing bye. I saw some info about the D-Zero before and someone has stated that something like the JDS C5 would be far superior as an amp. Wouldnt the DAC on a DAC/Amp combo unit get bypassed anyway making the C5 a better buy?
Thanks for pointing out the Canlanta event....I didnt even know that was going on. I will most definitely try to get out there! Thanks again for your help.