More modern psychedelic with Canadian band Shalabi Effect and their middle eastern influenced sound. The second track 'Bright Guilty World' reminds me of Portishead.
There is more music than I could have ever hoped for, digging into modern prog. I know most modern prog is metal based/influenced, but the psychedelic folk scene is providing some very interesting and challenging listening. This album is called 'Curse the traced Bird' by Spires That The Sunset Rise who are from Illinois.
Love modern prog and all the strands. Here are todays recommendations;
Oceansize. http://www.oceansize.co.uk/effloresce.html Sadly now split but worth investigation. This is a link to the debut album by them. Taking Radiohead in a heavier direction. Great stuff.
Amplifier. http://www.amplifiertheband.com/ Amazing new double concept album The Octopus. A must listen right now.
Pure Reason Revolution http://www.purereasonrevolution.co.uk/ The sound of what Pink Floyd would have sounded like if they formed today. Started life with a predominant guitar sound but now the keyboards reign. If Depeche Mode went fully progressive this would be their soundtrack. Hammer and Anvil is an awesome album.
The Amber Light. http://www.progarchives.com/artist.asp?id=1165 Porcupine Tree, Sigur Ros, Radiohead, Talk Talk. Takes a bit of these and makes a sound all of their own. German band whose earlier stuff is now hard to find but worth tracking down. The German amazon site is the best place to start if you want to purchase.
Amplifier are superb. I have listened to The Octopus and then listened to it again straight away. It is a long time since I did that.
With a real mix of sounds I would recommend Martin Grech, very atmospheric and at times able to out metal many a metal band
Rush wasn't even mentioned in the OP, bit of a surprise to me. Rush-inspired, and truly amazing prog rock albums in my book, are early Porcupine Tree offerings Up the Downstair, The Sky Moves Sideways, Signify (listed chronologically, one of them in bold 'cause it's so damn great). I only just got into these recently and it has been a real treat.
I've been an Opeth freak since forever, and love everything they recorded up until Ghost Reveries. Watershed didn't help matters either. Still Life is probably my favourite album all genres.
I've done a fair bit of listening to Dream Theater, but always liked Symphony X better (love those guys!). It is a stretch to call the latter progressive, but to me there are some aspects of their music that warrants it, even though they're definitely more towards the neo-classical.
Airbag http://www.airbagsound.com/?page_id=295 Named after a Radiohead song so gives a bit of a clue where these guys are coming from. Add in a bit more prog and a bit of Talk Talk and you will be on the right track. Free downloads if you follow the links.
Mew http://www.mewsite.com/content/biography Great Danish band. What do they put in those Nordic waters to make great music. Frengers is a classic album.
Cannot believe Elbow have not been mentioned. http://www.elbow.co.uk/ A voice that echoes a bit of Peter Gabriel and music that stirs the emotions. Their whole back catalogue is worth investigation and I think along with Radiohead and Muse these guys are at the front of the modern prog sound. A brilliant band.
Future of Forrestry. http://www.youtube.com/fofmovies#p/u/5/QuFbRy2_quE I love the sound this band makes. Still a relative secret but should be so well known. This clip will give a taste of this amazing band in action. The Travel Cd set is worth every minute of investigation.
X2 on Elbow, this band is special. In my opinion Coldplay - worthy of a mention - sounds more clinical.
Radiohead, I am just getting a taste of them.
Muse, modern yes but also a rehash of the seventies and eighties and more. They have to be mentioned though.
Tool, I just cannot find the words to describe them after two listens of the album "Lateralus". Maybe the Fibonacci sequence makes a difference?
For A Minor Reflection? I went to their performance so I have to mention them.
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P.S. I am still digging in the past for obscure and unknown music from the sixties and seventies.