Originally Posted by JerryLove
Originally Posted by myinitialsaredac
He found issues in the dielectric storing energy as current passed and releasing it out of phase with the current. He also wanted to eliminate the vibration of the conductors as current passed. I would say that he had a goal going into the cable design.
As above his major factors were matching the dielectric to the velocity of propagation of the conduction to eliminate the storing and releasing of energy out of phase
I apologize in advance for the hatchet job on the quote, but there are a lot of individual points.
"Out of phase" with what?
Out of phase with the original input. To explain further, the dielectric stores energy as a current passes, the problem is that if the dielectric does not re-release the energy at the same point in the waveform that it absorbed it, the energy will be released from the dielectric at a point that isn't where it was in the original current.
He also found a geometry for the conductors that eliminated the resonance as the current passed.
Given that circuit resonance's effects depends on whether the inductor and capacitor are in parallel or serial, I'm not sure how to apply this to a wire alone. Is he discussing a resonance that drops impedance or one which drops current? Do you have some measurements of this occuring within ranges appropriate to audio?
He literally is discussing the wire (conductor) vibrating when current moves through it. He put up this nifty little video to help illustrate:
Another breakthrough was to eliminate soldering of the connectors, instead he found a way to crimp forge them, about 10,000 psi of pressure. He also found that the copper purity played a role due to what he termed eddy currents. Though this is my own input, it makes sense that impurities would change the signal as the valence and conduction bands of the molecular orbitals of the crystal would be disrupted. He did not mention much about impedance during our interview.
Solder forms a chemical bond and seems to work very well. I'm not sure what an eddy current is, but since it's not something that appears as a problem in even the most sensitive of connectors (say, the multi-lane signals in a parallel-bus high-bandwidth interface like a PCI connecter), I'm having trouble imagining what the effect on an audio waveform might be.
Is solder forming a chemical bond, i.e. is it forming molecular orbitals with whatever it is applied to? I don't actually know the answer to that question but I would say that I think it is more like forging alloys in a sense where there are discreet sections of different materials that form a circuit due to contact rather than forming a new compound.
Eddies are impurities or imperfections in the crystal structure. Per the eddy currents, you can take a look here and let me know what you think:
It makes sense that impurities would change the MOs as I discussed previously. The effect thereby would have to be discussed in terms of how electricity actually passes. Essentially the energy in the current is absorbed by the electrons in the conductance band, the electron rises to the valence band, and then rereleases the energy as it falls into the conductance band. Yes there are multiple bands of different energy levels but that is too much for now. The energy that is rereleased is absorbed by the copper atoms/molecular structure conductance band MO that then repeats the process and the signal passes. Impurities in this crystal structure would alter the MOs thereby altering the way the current is transferred.
I may be wrong but wouldn't PCI connectors be digital logic (i.e. 1s and 0s) that are error correcting? I think they also go into a buffer and are clocked out but truth be told I am not a computer expert.
What affect did these "eddy currents" have on electrical waves used in audio?
I do not have anything but speculation as an answer to this question. It is apparent that eddies are there, it is apparent that they would have some effect in some way due to MOs. However I do not have measurements nor the education in physical chemistry to answer how it affects audio waveforms in the environment of a cable.
He discovered that drawing and annealing copper in a hydrogen filled environment (termed oxygen reducing) provided eddy-free copper. He discovered and patented the geometry that eliminated resonance of the conductors as well as the process of matching the dielectric to the velocity of propagation of the wire. Though I did not ask directly, I would assume he would say that perhaps not all of those minds were looking at audio fidelity applications.
Wait. So we are discussing surface deformaties? What was the measured effect of these deformations on the electrical waveform?
Answered above to the first question. To the second question I actually have not been provided measurements and am working just off of a chemical explanation of the impact of impurities on the MOs. Though I personally think the superconductor applications are nifty