Not always. It depends and varies by country, pressing, years, color, cutting engineer, etc etc.
For example, the vinyl of Californication is simply the CD master cut on vinyl. Neko Case vinyl is mastered better than the CD's but the vinyl quality is inferior and very noisy. The original CD releases of Led Zeppelin beat the remasters but the original vinyl cuts still sound superior to the original CD's and it's a toss up between the original vinyl cuts or the new vinyl remasters released by Classic Records. The original black triangle CD release of Dark Side of The Moon beats out all other releases including recent vinyl remasters. Then there are the possibilities of SACD, Blu-spec CD, DVDA and other formats. A great example is "A Charlie Brown Christmas" which exists in nearly all formats. The superior version of the original mix is the 45RPM vinyl released by Analogue Productions but you can find acceptable versions of the album on CD thanks to remixing and remastering yet the original mix is hard to find and full of problems. It's a real jungle out there!
In the end it comes down to doing your research and finding particular releases for the best version. Usually you can guarantee some quality in the version you pick up by checking who the mastering engineer was for the release. Great names to look for are Steve Hoffman, Kevin Gray, Alan Yoshida, Barry Diament, Joe Tarrantino, Bob Katz, Prof. Keith Johnson and Bob Ludwig. Great companies to look for are Chesky Records, MFSL (MoFi), DCC, Audio Fidelity, Classic Records, Reference Recordings, Sony Gold Mastersound, Sheffield Labs, Original Jazz Classics (OJC), Analogue Productions and Groove Note. Keep in mind that these are guidelines and don't always guarantee a holy grail reference but in general, they are safe bets 90% of the time be it on CD, Vinyl, HDAD, SACD, etc.