Strain Relief: Molded rubber or other flexible material where the cable connects to the earpiece.
Housing: The 'chassis' of the earphone; Where the driver is located along with crossovers and tuning ports (if any.)
Filter: Sometimes replaceable (ex. Etymotic earphones); Prevents earwax and other debris from entering the housing and affecting the driver.
Nozzle: Neck or tube-like portion on the end of the housing. Rubber, foam, or silicon flanges are attached here.
Cable: Typically cloth-sheathed or rubber, connects the 3.5mm jack to the earphone.
Cable Cinch: A small slider above the y-split of a cord that adjusts the length of the split cable section.
Memory: The property of a cable to maintain the shape it was placed in. The shape of a cord with no memory is very easy to change. With the ViSang earphones if you loop the cord and put it in a case, it will still be looped when you take it out and may take some time to straighten out. the Ultimate Ears TripleFi 10 also stays in similar shape compared to its original coiling and packaging. These cables are considered to have memory. With the Etymotic Mc5, the cables have fewer bend marks out of the box, and when coiled tend to become relaxed and straight very easily.
Left to Right: Etymotic Mc5 Mylar cable, relatively memory free, UE TripleFi 10, with substantial cable memory.
Plug: Commonly sized at 3.5mm, this connector is inserted into the audio source